NDT Inspection of Tensile Strength, Yield Stress, Residual Stress, and Fracture Toughness

API Pipe Material Verification for Unknown Steel Grades

AIS series of instrumented indentation nondestructive NDT inspection machines test mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, yield stress, residual stress, and fracture toughness of materials from micro/nano dimensions to large metal structures. Equipment allows to measure wall thickness.

 

AIS non-destructive NDT inspection and testing machinery is used to inspect natural gas pipes and hard to reach objects when destructive testing cannot be accomplished. It can be used for PHMSA regulation tensile and yield strength testing.

 

Tensile and yield stress testing nondestructive NDT testing and inspection equipment prevents industrial accidents, ensures compliance with government and technical standards, saves time and money with on-site testing and reduces asset downtime.

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Wall Thickness
Frontics | NDT Testing
Tensile, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness NDT
AIS2100 | NDT Testing of Mechanical Properties

Tensile, Yield, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness | NDT Mechanical Properties Analysis 

 

LPR’s nondestructive NDT inspection and testing units help insure that materials used in high stress applications meet ever increasing technical standards and regulatory requirements when new and remain stable throughout their service life.

 

As material ages, mechanical, chemical, and thermal effects cause its dimensions, shape, and internal structure to change. Unchecked, these changes degrade the safety of the material and shorten its useful life. Companies have to assess these changes with either destructive tests or LPR Global’s NDT equipment, which can be used on-site.

 

LPR Global offer equipment which makes use of Instrumented Indentation Technology (depth indentation). This NDT equipment is ideal for API pipe inspections and inspections related to PHMSA tensile and yield strength properties testing.

Operators can attach strength information to each section of the pipe to determine where and when pipe repairs are required.

 

Some oil&gas pipes are old enough to not have any records of grades used, IIT method is ideal for material and grade verification as it does not require a need to know pipe grades.

 

Our nondestructive NDT testing and inspection machines, equipment, and tools assist you in getting accurate data on the soundness of all materials. With automated operation and reporting users can acquire an accurate evaluation of all material property changes over time, to ensure that your plant, equipment, and everything you produce will run safely and economically for the expected design life.

Comparison of IIT Method Results with Destructive Tensile Tests

Measuring stress strain points using the depth-load indentation method at 15 points, IIT equipment allows to build a stress strain curve which is used to obtain yield stress and tensile strength.

Stress Strain Points | Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness
Stress Strain Points | Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness

 

In-field accuracy of results when compared to the destructive tests is less than 10% deviation. Normally, 3%-5% deviation is standard for the IIT method.

NDT testing and inspection equipment provides flexibility to gather accurate, timely material data to lessen the likelihood of sudden, expensive, and potentially disastrous material failures.

 

pdf-iconInstrumented Microindentation Study on Long-term Aged Materials

 

AIS series nondestructive NDT testing and inspection equipment offer many advantages over competitive material analysis system offerings. Our nondestructive NDT testing and inspection machine offer functionality and custom software that are field upgradeable; so setup is easy and convenient. Testing methods and analytical results comply with ISO standards.

 

pdf-iconNDT Equipment for Nuclear and Power Plant Applications

 

Our state-of-the-art nondestructive NDT inspection and testing machines are compact, portable, operate in-field, and easy to use.

 

Our NDT inspection and testing machines provide information on material properties such as tensile strength, metal hardness, elasticity, transformation, fracture toughness, and residual stress. Specimens remain in place during testing and are undamaged at test completion.

 

Unlike conventional mechanical testing (which destroys the test sample), the AIS nondestructive inspection and testing machines leave only a tiny depth sensing indentation mark; the material’s properties and operating characteristics are unchanged.

 

Frontics AIS nondestructive NDT testing and inspection machines help:

  • Eliminate costly test sample preparation
  • Prevent industrial accidents, regulatory and standards infractions
  • Maximize service life, reduce manufacturing costs, and reduce the weight of structures
  • Minimize or eliminate downtime
  • Accurately estimate material reliability and identify appropriate times to repair, rebuild, or exchange
  • Diagnose material degradation and aging, identify existing damage, and address conditions that may lead to future damage
  • Verify stress removal heat treatment results before/after construction and after repair

The AIS Nondestructive NDT Testing and Inspection Equipment series is:

  • Instrumented Indentation Technique
  • Onsite Usable
  • Reliable
  • Precise
  • Fast
  • Economical
  • Portable
  • Easy to use

Compared with expensive and disruptive destructive testing methods, our AIS series nondestructive NDT equipment and portable NDT tools generate accurate test results that meet ISO and KEPIC standards.

 

We offer six nondestructive NDT inspection and testing unit models, including the AIS3000 (residual stress, tensile strength testing), the AIS2100 (tensile strength testing), AIS3000 Compact (tensile stress and residual stress testing).

Tensile Strength, Yield Stress NDT Inspection | AIS2100 NDT 

 

Testing for tensile properties can now be done accurately and non-destructively with the AIS2100. This nondestructive NDT inspection and testing unit is easy to transport and use in the field, obtaining precise load and depth data continuously with real time reporting.

 

Each test takes less than 3 minutes to perform per point. Each inspected area is recommended to be tested for 3-5 indentation points. On average, it takes 2-3 hours to perform a test on one API pipe and 5 various locations. Test results are generated instantly.

In-field AIS2100 series generates an indentation load depth curve used to show tensile properties such as flow curve, yield strength, tensile strength, and work hardening exponent.

The AIS2100 nondestructive NDT inspection and testing machine has a high power motor and high-strength decelerator and precisely controls moving parts and speed. It comes with multiple indenters for Rockwell A/C/D and Vickers hardness measurement.

This complete nondestructive NDT inspection machine package includes mounting hardware for various test sites including: mechanical chain, u-block, v-block, and flat and curved magnets. All indentation components and custom software for analysis and reporting are also provided.

The advantages of the AIS2100 nondestructive NDT Inspection Machine include:

  • Nondestructive, reproducible field testing of tensile strength and hardness

  •  Nondestructive testing of metal structures

  • Data accuracy for yield strength, tensile strength, and work hardening index surpasses other NDT testing methods

  • Tests do not require initial data input

  • Allows to obtain tensile properties information with 10% margin compared to the conventional destructive testing equipment.
  • Can be used in field, comes with a number of different attachments to different shapes and sizes
AIS2100 | NDT Testing of Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength | Yield Stress

Tensile strength and yield stress AIS2100 NDT Inspection Machines in action in laboratories and in-field sites:

AIS2100 | In-Field Use | Tensile Stress
AIS2100 | In-Field Use | Tensile Stress

Tensile Stress and Yield strength AIS2100 Nondestructive (NDT) Testing Equipment Specification

 

Specifications
Nondestructive Inspection
Size180 x 180 x 430 mm (14 kg)
Maximum Load300 kgf
Resolutions (Load / Depth)100 gf / 0.2um
Full Stroke40 mm
Loading rate0.05 - 30 mm / min
CommunicationRS-422
Data acquisition rate30 / sec
Power
AdapterAC 110 V - 220 VAC 110 - 220 V (free voltage)
BatteryPortable battery (Lasts for 10 hrs)
Analyzing Computer
Standard
Lap-top PC (w / SW)Lap-top PC (w / SW)
SpecialRugged Computer (Optional)
Indenter
WC spherical indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers, Rockwell C indenter
WC spherical Indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers Indenter
Attachment Tool
(Select or option)
FieldMulticurve magnet
Flat magnet
Light-weight mechanical chain
U / V-block (- 6 inch)
LaboratoryPrecise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate / clamping jig)
Precise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate /c lamping jig)

Residual Stress, Tensile Strength | AIS2100

 

Model
Tensile Properties
Residual Stress
Hardness
Fracture Toughness
AIS2100YesN/AExtra payment Required for this OptionExtra payment Required for this Option

AIS2100 Nondestructive Testing & Inspection Machine | Instrumented Indentation Technique ITT

AIS2100 Non Destructive Testing and Inspection Machine Hardware | NDT Testing Machines
AIS2100 Non Destructive Testing and Inspection Machine Hardware | NDT Testing Machines

In-field Testing Procedure Software | AIS Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Equipment

AIS Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Equipment | NDT Software Program
NDT Tensile | NDT Software Program

Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness Measurement | AIS3000 | NDT

The AIS3000 nondestructive testing equipment uses the Instrumented Indentation Technique to obtain data for residual stress, yield strength, tensile strength, and elastic modulus.

The AIS3000 nondestructive testing and inspection machine can evaluate residual stress from welds or structures and equipment. With an indentation of less than 150µm, the AIS3000 provides non-destructive, accurate, and repeatable results.

With its portability, ease of use, and wireless communication capabilities, the AIS3000 performs nondestructive, on-site evaluation quickly and efficiently.

 

Advantages of using the AIS3000 include:

  • Reproducible mechanical testing in the field
  • Evaluate welding residual stress of structures and equipment
  • Evaluate tensile properties of materials under development
  • Pre-qualification test for structures and equipment under construction
  • Onsite NDT Testing and Inspection of Structures
  • Instrumented indentation technique (IIT)
Tensile, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness NDT

The AIS3000 nondestructive NDT testing and inspection machine package includes:

  • All testing components
  • Wide dovetail slider for multi-point indentation using one attachment point
  • Laboratory and field scales
  • Micro-positioning stage and swivel mount for laboratory use
  • All necessary analysis and reporting software

The AIS3000 portable nondestructive testing and inspection machine in action in laboratories and field sites:

AIS3000 | In-Field Use | Residual stress
AIS3000 | In-Field Use | Residual stress

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness | AIS3000 Equipment Specification

 

Specifications
Nondestructive Inspection
Size5.6 gf / 0.1um
Maximum Load300 kgf
Resolutions (Load / Depth)5.6 gf / 0.1um
Full Stroke40 mm
Loading rate0.05 - 60 mm / min
CommunicationRS-422/ wireless module
Data acquisition rate100 / sec
Power
AdapterAC 110 V - 220 VAC 110 - 220 V (free voltage)
BatteryPortable battery (Lasts for 10 hrs)
Analyzing Computer
StandardLap-top PC (w / SW)Lap-top PC (w / SW)
SpecialRugged Computer (Optional)
Indenter
WC spherical indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers, Rockwell C indenter
WC spherical Indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers Indenter
Attachment Tool
(Select or option)
FieldMulticurve magnet
Flat magnet
Light-weight mechanical chain
U-block (3 - 6inch)
Multi-point dovetail slider
LaboratoryPrecise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate / clamping jig)
Precise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate /c lamping jig)

AIS3000 Residual Stress, Tensile Strength

 

Model
Tensile Properties
Residual Stress
Hardness
Fracture Toughness
AIS3000YesYesExtra payment Required for this OptionExtra payment Required for this Option

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress | AIS Series | Material Verification for API Pipes 

 

 

NDT Instrumented Indentation Technique
Instrumented Indentation Technique Test (IIT) or depth-sensing indentation / nanoindentation
Instrumented Indentation Technique Test (IIT)
/ Microindentation / Macroindentation
(Micro AIS / AIS 2100 or AIS3000)
Computer Control
Instrumented - instrumented does not equal automated continuous depth-sensing (10)Everything's controlled using computer, continuous indentation test. User selects the method of load control and displacement control then tests with it.
continuous indentation test invented back in 1977 (7)
Load Range (F)
Ultra-low load, nano-indentation (0.05 N≤ F ≤0.50 N) (4) (5)Micro-indentation: 0.1 mN ≤ F ≤ 20 N
Macro-indentaiton: 10 mN ≤ F ≤ 3000 N
Depth Range (h)
Nano range: h ≤ 0.2 μm (4) (5) Micro-indentation: 0.01 μm ≤ h ≤ 15 μm
Macro-indentaiton: 0.1 μm ≤ h ≤ 40000 μm
Indenter Geometry
Pyramidal Berkovich, (4) (5)
Small ball indenter (<50μm) rarely used due to unacceptable geometry
Spherical (Not weld & not housing, The gap doesn't exist between indenter and body)
Microindentation: ≥25μm
Macroindentation: ≥250.μm
Micro Vickers / Vickers
Load/Displacement Shape
CurveLinear
Partial Unloading Technique
NoYes
Indent Measurement
Analytical and opticalAnalytical
Calibration
No calibration blocks exist for Martens hardness or indentation modulusLoad cell calibrated per ASTM E4 and E74
Depth sensor calibration: Cycle is every 250 years (Optical type)
Vibration Table Required
YesNo
Load Frame Springs
YesN/A
True-Stress vs True-Plastic-Strain Curve Comparable to Conventional Tension Test
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Yield Strength
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Strain-Hardening Exponent (n) (uniform ductility)
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Strength Coefficient (K)
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Precision Values
Limited 1-lab, 1-machine (nano range), Berkovich indenter. No demonstrated inter-laboratory precision values. Machine was not verified and no calibration blocks used.Yes, complete 6-lab ILS per ASTM E691, ILS report submitted to ASTM E28
Fracture Toughness of Metals - Haggag Toughness Method (HTM)
NoYes (9)
Elastic Modulus
Indentation Modulus (3)
* Indentation Modulus may or may not correlate to elastic modulus
Yes (No need of reference) (3)
Nondestructive
Hardness
Yes - Martens Hardness from quasi-destructive pyramidal Berkovich indenter.
Martens hardness cannot be obtained from spherical indenter (3)
Vickers hardness using Instrumented Indentation Technique - IIT (3)
Thin Films
YesYes (Micro indentation)
Tribological Behavior
YesN/A
Ceramics
YesN/A

AIS Nondestructive Testing and NDT Inspection Equipment clients:

  • Hyundai Motor Company
  • Kepco Keptri
  • Posco
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Kieco
  • Kitech
  • GNTP
  • Seoul National University
  • GE Energy
  • PG&E
  • ExxonMobil
  • Shell Global Solution
  • Boeing
  • JFE Steel
  • Osaka University

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