Non-Destructive Testing Equipment for Tensile Properties, Yield Stress, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness

API Pipe Material Verification  |  PHMSA Yield and Tensile Strength Confirmation

LPR Global offers AIS series of in-field nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment, which utilizes the instrumented indentation technology (IIT) to test material mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, yield stress, residual stress, and fracture toughness. It is commonly used for pipe, tank, rotor, turbine blade, pressure vessel, and steel sheet non-destructive inspections. 

 

LPR Global’s NDT equipment is based on the local indentation method (IIT method) and does not require sample preparation or data input prior to testing. It is a fully automated NDT machine that generates test results immediately upon inspection completion. In addition to advanced IIT technology, our equipment’s portable size and advanced attachment options allow it to be used on in-service pipelines and complex structures, eliminating asset down-time.  

Global companies in the pipeline industry such as PG&E, TransCanada, Husky Energy, as well as pipeline integrity service providers such as TDW, Acuren, XCEL Group, SGS and GE have relied on our NDT equipment for PHMSA regulation compliance and on-site testing of material properties and structural integrity.  

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Wall Thickness
Tensile Yield Strength Inspection
Pipeline Yield Inspection
Indentation Yield Tensile Inspection

Tensile Strength, Yield Stress, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness | NDT Mechanical Properties Analysis 

 

LPR Global’s AIS series of non-destructive testing equipment is used to inspect mechanical properties of materials and structures operating under high-pressure, high-stress, high-temperature and other harsh environments. It is essential for power plant and pipeline operators and service providers to closely monitor structural deformation and degradation of materials caused by mechanical, chemical and thermal effects in order to adhere to regulatory requirements and to prevent industrial accidents.   

 

LPR Global offers NDT equipment which uses Instrumented Indentation Technology (depth indentation). This NDT equipment is ideal for API pipe inspections and inspections related to PHMSA tensile and yield strength properties testing.

Instrumented Indentation Test Theory & Procedure

Stress Strain Points | Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness

Non-Destructive IIT Method vs. Destructive Tensile Tests

AIS series equipment uses the load-depth indentation method to build a stress-strain curve, and to obtain tensile strength and yield stress data.  

When compared to destructive test results, our NDT equipment’s in-field accuracy shows less than 10% deviation.

Instrumented Indentation NDT for Aged Material Degradation Monitoring 

Instrumented indentation technology overcomes the limitations of conventional non-destructive testing techniques in measuring mechanical property degradation of long-term aged materials by analyzing the indentation load-depth curves that reflects the deformation behavior of the tested sample, which is non-destructively assessed by the indenter on a micro scale.  

pdf-iconInstrumented Microindentation Study on Long-term Aged Materials

 

Power Plant Equipment and Structure NDT Inspection

The AIS series of NDT equipment offered by LPR Global has been used to inspect power plant and nuclear power plant facilities. Due to the advanced attachment options compatible with the AIS NDT equipment, we have performed inspection and non-destructive testing of a variety of power plant equipment and structures, including turbine rotor, turbine casing, shafts, boiler tube, weldment, weld overlay, reactor, cooling water line, steam generator and heater tube.  

pdf-iconNDT Equipment for Nuclear and Power Plant Applications

 

High-Speed Railway (Wheel and Rail) Defects NDT Inspection 

Common types of damages to high-speed rail such as crack propagation, surface peeling/spalling, work hardening/ shelling, abrasion and other surface and subsurface defects can occur due to repeated wheel load and other impacts. If left unchecked, these railway damages and deteriorations can be detrimental to the safe operation of the railway and the safety of railway passengers and operators.  

 

AIS NDT equipment offered by LPR Global can be used to perform systematic and periodic non-destructive inspections to detect rail and wheel defects of in-service railways. In addition, AIS equipment can be used to inspect new materials and railway components, eliminating the introduction of defective parts to ensure the quality and safety of new systems and replacement parts.  

Attachment jig for high-speed rail- vertical.Attachment jig for high-speed rail- horizontal.

Non-Destructive Material Verification for PHMSA Mega Rule

 

LPR Global’s AIS NDT equipment is used for PHMSA regulatory inspection of tensile strength and yield stress for material verification of unknown pipes. 

 

PHMSA (Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration) regulation by the U.S. government Department of Transportation (DOT) requires all pipelines constructed before 1970 to have confirmation of the MAOP (maximum allowable operating pressure) as defined by TVC (Traceable, Verifiable and Complete) records of material tensile strength and yield stress. To ensure regulatory compliance, pipeline owners are required to update incomplete and inaccurate pipeline information to ensure accurate risk assessment and effective risk management. To achieve regulatory compliance, PHMSA requires companies to perform yield and tensile strength inspections using non-destructive technologies (NDT).  

The requirements for testing technologies are specified in the §192.607 section of the Mega Rule.  

 

***PHMSA 192.607: Must achieve at least 95% confidence level*** 

  • 3rd party application cases proves that IIT used by AIS equipment offered by LPR Global meets this confidence requirement 
  • Ultimate Yield Strength (UYS) +/-10% with a 95% confidence level 
  • Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) +/-10% with a 95% confidence level 

 

  

Recent report by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) tested and verified the accuracy and effectiveness of the instrumented indentation technology (IIT) used by the AIS series of NDT equipment. In this research, GTI’s optimum causal models combined with the AIS technology data achieved a 95% confidence level in ultimate tensile strength and yield strength predictions by overlapping yield and ultimate tensile strength from lab tests across the entire pipe sample DOE on non-seamless pipes, including pipes with long seam welds like ERW and SAW. 

 

AIS series NDT equipment is recognized as an accurate, reliable, efficient, and cost-effective tool for material property confirmations of service pipelines to meet the new U.S. government Department of Transportation (DOT) PHMSA regulations. 

PDF IconGTI’s Report Conclusions

AIS Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Inspection Equipment Benefits

  • Eliminate the need for costly test sample preparation
  • Prevent industrial accidents, ensures regulatory compliance 
  • Minimize or eliminate in-service asset downtime during inspection 
  • Timely and accurate diagnosis of material aging, degradation and damage
  • Accurately estimate material reliability and identify appropriate times to repair, rebuild, or exchange
  • Diagnose material degradation and aging, identify existing damage, and address conditions that may lead to future damage
  • Verify stress removal heat treatment results before/after construction and after repair

Tensile Strength, Yield Stress NDT Inspection | AIS2100 NDT 

 

Testing for tensile properties such as tensile strength and yield stress can be done accurately and non-destructively with the AIS2100 unit. This non-destructive NDT inspection and testing equipment is portable for in-field operations to obtain precise load and depth data with real time data generation and reporting.

 

In-field AIS2100 model generates an indentation load depth curve used to show tensile properties such as flow curve, yield strength, tensile strength, and work hardening exponent.

The AIS2100 unit is equipped with a high power motor and high-strength decelerator to precisely control equipment positioning. AIS2100 is equipped with multiple indenters for Rockwell A/C/D and Vickers hardness measurement.

 

LPR Global provides complete non-destructive testing (NDT) machine package with mounting hardware and attachment jigs for complex test sites. Attachment options designed for complex structures include mechanical chain, U-block, V-block, flat magnets and curved magnets. We are capable of designing customized specialty attachment jigs according to specific client request. All indentation components and custom software for analysis and reporting are provided.

Tensile Strength | Yield Stress

Tensile strength and yield stress AIS2100 NDT Inspection Machines in action in laboratories and in-field sites, equipped with suitable attachment jigs:

AIS2100 | In-Field Use | Tensile Stress
AIS2100 | In-Field Use | Tensile Stress

Tensile Stress and Yield strength AIS2100 Nondestructive (NDT) Testing Equipment Specification

 

Specifications
Nondestructive Inspection
Size180 x 180 x 430 mm (14 kg)
Maximum Load300 kgf
Resolutions (Load / Depth)100 gf / 0.2um
Full Stroke40 mm
Loading rate0.05 - 30 mm / min
CommunicationRS-422
Data acquisition rate30 / sec
Power
AdapterAC 110 V - 220 VAC 110 - 220 V (free voltage)
BatteryPortable battery (Lasts for 10 hrs)
Analyzing Computer
Standard
Lap-top PC (w / SW)Lap-top PC (w / SW)
SpecialRugged Computer (Optional)
Indenter
WC spherical indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers, Rockwell C indenter
WC spherical Indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers Indenter
Attachment Tool
(Select or option)
FieldMulticurve magnet
Flat magnet
Light-weight mechanical chain
U / V-block (- 6 inch)
LaboratoryPrecise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate / clamping jig)
Precise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate /c lamping jig)

Residual Stress, Tensile Strength | AIS2100

 

Model
Tensile Properties
Residual Stress
Hardness
Fracture Toughness
AIS2100YesN/AExtra payment Required for this OptionExtra payment Required for this Option

AIS2100 Nondestructive Testing & Inspection Machine | Instrumented Indentation Technique ITT

AIS2100 Non Destructive Testing and Inspection Machine Hardware | NDT Testing Machines
AIS2100 Non Destructive Testing and Inspection Machine Hardware | NDT Testing Machines

In-field Testing Procedure Software | AIS Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Equipment

AIS Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Equipment | NDT Software Program
NDT Tensile | NDT Software Program

Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness Measurement | AIS3000 | NDT

The AIS3000 nondestructive testing equipment uses the Instrumented Indentation Technique to obtain data for residual stress, yield strength, tensile strength, and elastic modulus.

The AIS3000 nondestructive testing and inspection machine can evaluate residual stress from welds or structures and equipment. With an indentation of less than 150µm, the AIS3000 provides non-destructive, accurate, and repeatable results.

With its portability, ease of use, and wireless communication capabilities, the AIS3000 performs nondestructive, on-site evaluation efficiently and accurately.

 

Advantages of using the AIS3000 include:

  • Reproducible mechanical testing in the field
  • Evaluate welding residual stress of structures and equipment
  • Evaluate tensile properties of materials under development
  • Pre-qualification test for structures and equipment under construction
  • Onsite NDT Testing and Inspection of Structures
  • Instrumented indentation technique (IIT)
Tensile, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness NDT

The AIS3000 nondestructive NDT testing and inspection machine package includes:

  • All testing components
  • Wide dovetail slider for multi-point indentation using one attachment point
  • Laboratory and field scales
  • Micro-positioning stage and swivel mount for laboratory use
  • All necessary analysis and reporting software

The AIS3000 portable nondestructive testing and inspection machine in action in laboratories and field sites:

AIS3000 | In-Field Use | Residual stress
AIS3000 | In-Field Use | Residual stress

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress, Fracture Toughness | AIS3000 Equipment Specification

 

Specifications
Nondestructive Inspection
Size5.6 gf / 0.1um
Maximum Load300 kgf
Resolutions (Load / Depth)5.6 gf / 0.1um
Full Stroke40 mm
Loading rate0.05 - 60 mm / min
CommunicationRS-422/ wireless module
Data acquisition rate100 / sec
Power
AdapterAC 110 V - 220 VAC 110 - 220 V (free voltage)
BatteryPortable battery (Lasts for 10 hrs)
Analyzing Computer
StandardLap-top PC (w / SW)Lap-top PC (w / SW)
SpecialRugged Computer (Optional)
Indenter
WC spherical indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers, Rockwell C indenter
WC spherical Indenter
(Dia. 0.5 / 1.0 mm)
Vickers Indenter
Attachment Tool
(Select or option)
FieldMulticurve magnet
Flat magnet
Light-weight mechanical chain
U-block (3 - 6inch)
Multi-point dovetail slider
LaboratoryPrecise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate / clamping jig)
Precise X-Y axis stage
Various vises (plate /c lamping jig)

AIS3000 Residual Stress, Tensile Strength

 

Model
Tensile Properties
Residual Stress
Hardness
Fracture Toughness
AIS3000YesYesExtra payment Required for this OptionExtra payment Required for this Option

Tensile Properties, Residual Stress | AIS Series | Material Verification for API Pipes 

 

 

NDT Instrumented Indentation Technique
Instrumented Indentation Technique Test (IIT) or depth-sensing indentation / nanoindentation
Instrumented Indentation Technique Test (IIT)
/ Microindentation / Macroindentation
(Micro AIS / AIS 2100 or AIS3000)
Computer Control
Instrumented - instrumented does not equal automated continuous depth-sensing (10)Everything's controlled using computer, continuous indentation test. User selects the method of load control and displacement control then tests with it.
continuous indentation test invented back in 1977 (7)
Load Range (F)
Ultra-low load, nano-indentation (0.05 N≤ F ≤0.50 N) (4) (5)Micro-indentation: 0.1 mN ≤ F ≤ 20 N
Macro-indentaiton: 10 mN ≤ F ≤ 3000 N
Depth Range (h)
Nano range: h ≤ 0.2 μm (4) (5)Micro-indentation: 0.01 μm ≤ h ≤ 15 μm
Macro-indentaiton: 0.1 μm ≤ h ≤ 40000 μm
Indenter Geometry
Pyramidal Berkovich, (4) (5)
Small ball indenter (<50μm) rarely used due to unacceptable geometry
Spherical (Not weld & not housing, The gap doesn't exist between indenter and body)
Microindentation: ≥25μm
Macroindentation: ≥250.μm
Micro Vickers / Vickers
Load/Displacement Shape
CurveLinear
Partial Unloading Technique
NoYes
Indent Measurement
Analytical and opticalAnalytical
Calibration
No calibration blocks exist for Martens hardness or indentation modulusLoad cell calibrated per ASTM E4 and E74
Depth sensor calibration: Cycle is every 250 years (Optical type)
Vibration Table Required
YesNo
Load Frame Springs
YesN/A
True-Stress vs True-Plastic-Strain Curve Comparable to Conventional Tension Test
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Yield Strength
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Strain-Hardening Exponent (n) (uniform ductility)
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Strength Coefficient (K)
NoYes (No need of reference)
Nondestructive (6) (8)
Precision Values
Limited 1-lab, 1-machine (nano range), Berkovich indenter. No demonstrated inter-laboratory precision values. Machine was not verified and no calibration blocks used.Yes, complete 6-lab ILS per ASTM E691, ILS report submitted to ASTM E28
Fracture Toughness of Metals - Haggag Toughness Method (HTM)
NoYes (9)
Elastic Modulus
Indentation Modulus (3)
* Indentation Modulus may or may not correlate to elastic modulus
Yes (No need of reference) (3)
Nondestructive
Hardness
Yes - Martens Hardness from quasi-destructive pyramidal Berkovich indenter.
Martens hardness cannot be obtained from spherical indenter (3)
Vickers hardness using Instrumented Indentation Technique - IIT (3)
Thin Films
YesYes (Micro indentation)
Tribological Behavior
YesN/A
Ceramics
YesN/A

AIS Nondestructive Testing and NDT Inspection Equipment clients:

  • Hyundai Motor Company
  • Kepco Keptri
  • Posco
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Kieco
  • Kitech
  • GNTP
  • XCEL
  • Applus
  • Seoul National University
  • GE Energy
  • PG&E
  • ExxonMobil
  • Shell Global Solution
  • Boeing
  • JFE Steel
  • Osaka University
  • Acuren

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